Sulfuric acid 

Sulfuric acid (Chemical formula: HSO) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid, usually transparent to yellow, miscible with water and can heat at any concentration of sulfuric acid as a dibasic acid in different concentrations. There are different characteristics, its different corrosive substances, such as metals, biological tissue, and even rocks, etc., are the property rooted in its strong acid, as well as its strong dehydration and oxidation resistance at high concentrations of sulfuric acid can result in the flesh great harm, which in addition can cause chemical burns through acidic hydrolysis to break down proteins and fats, but also with carbohydrate dehydration reaction and cause secondary flame burns, it is in use, safety precautions should be done. In addition sulfuric acid also has deliquescence, can absorb water in the air Vapor. Just because sulfuric acid have different characteristics, it also has different applications, such as home strong acid through drainage agent, lead-acid battery electrolyte, fertilizers, oil refineries and chemical synthesis materials and the like. sulfuric acid is widely produced, the most commonly used industrial processes for the contact method. 

Molecular formula HSO 
Standard conditions state colorless, odorless liquid 
Melting point 10.371 ℃ 
Solubility miscible with water in any ratio of dynamic viscosity 0.021 Pa s (25 ℃) 
Refractive index 1.41827 
Vaporization heat 0.57 kJ / g (STP) 
CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9 
Foreign name Sulfuric acid 
Molecular weight 98.078 
Density of 1.8305 g / cm3 
Boiling point 337 ℃ 
Vapor pressure of 6 × 10 mmHg 
Surface tension 0.0735 N / m 
Heat capacity of 1.416 J / (g K) (STP) 
Heat of fusion 0.1092 kJ / g (STP)

 

Applications 
Industrial Uses 
Metallurgy and Petroleum Industry 
For the metallurgical industry and metal processing in the metallurgical industry sector, especially non-ferrous metal production process requires the use of sulfuric acid, for example by electrolysis of refined copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, need to use sulfuric acid electrolyte, certain precious metals refining, sulfuric acid to dissolve before also need to inclusion of other metals. cold rolling, drawing and stamping in the steel industry, iron steel surface must be removed with sulfuric acid. rolled sheet, cold-drawn seamless steel tubes and other quality higher steel, must be rolling once every wash sulfuric acid. In addition, before seam steel pipe, sheet metal, wire and other performing galvanizing, go through with sulfuric acid. In some metal machining process , such as nickel, chrome and other metal parts, also need to use sulfuric acid to wash the surface rust in ferrous metallurgy enterprise sector, the need for pickling steel is generally about 5% to 6% of steel production, and per ton pickling of steel, about 98% of the consumption of sulfuric acid 30 ~ 50kg. 
Used in petroleum industrial gasoline, lubricants and other petroleum products production process, the need of concentrated sulfuric acid refining to remove sulfur compounds and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Sulfuric acid per tonne of crude oil of about 24kg, per ton of diesel refining needs sulfuric acid approximately 31kg. Preparation of activated clay used in the oil industry, but also consume a lot of sulfuric acid. 
In concentrated nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid as a dehydrating agent; chlor-alkali industry, with concentrated sulfuric acid to dry chlorine, hydrogen chloride gas and the like; inorganic salt industry, such as cryolite, borax, trisodium phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, lead sulfate ( , zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, ferrous sulfate in the preparation of other sulfate, and sulfuric acid to be used for a number of inorganic acids such as phosphoric acid, boric acid, chromic acid (sometimes referred to as CrO3), hydrofluoric acid, chlorosulfonic acid; organic acid such as oxalic acid , producing acetic acid, etc., often require sulfuric acid as raw materials. In addition coking chemical industry (sulfuric acid to ammonia with coke oven gas by-product ammonium sulfate acts), electroplating industry, leather industry, paint industry, rubber industry, paper industry, paint industry (Preparation of organic solvents), industrial explosives and lead-acid battery manufacturing, etc., all consume a considerable amount of sulfuric acid. 
Can be used as hard water softeners, ion exchange regeneration agents, pH adjusting agent, oxidant and detergent may also be used for fertilizers, pesticides, dyes, paints, plastics, chemical, manufacturing explosives and a variety of sulfate in oil refining, smelting non-ferrous metals, steel pickling, tanning process and the coking industry, textile industry, the defense industry has a wide range of applications. Strong acid cleaning caustic in integrated circuit manufacturing process is mainly used for silicon wafers cleaning. 
Solve people's basic needs 
For the production of chemical fibers for the people familiar viscose rayon, it requires the use of sulfuric acid, a mixture of zinc sulfate, sodium sulfate as the viscose spinning coagulation bath every 1t viscose fiber production, need to consume 1.2 to 1.5 sulfuric acid t, each producing 1t vinylon short fiber, will consume 98% sulfuric acid 230kg, 1t kapron each monomer production, need 1.6t20% fuming sulfuric acid. In addition, nylon, cellulose acetate, polyacrylonitrile fiber and other chemical fiber production, but also the use of a considerable amount of sulfuric acid. 
Chemical fibers for the production of plastics and other polymer compound other than the polymer compound, in the national economy occupies an increasingly important position. For every 1t epoxy resins, sulfuric acid required 2.68t, # called "plastic" of polytetrafluoroethylene ethylene, each producing 1t, need to use sulfuric acid 1.32t; production of organic silicon rubber, silicone, styrene-butadiene rubber and nitrile rubber, but also have to use sulfuric acid. 
Dye industry for almost a dye (or intermediate) prepared without the use of sulfuric acid. Preparation of azo dyes intermediates required for sulfonation reaction, aniline dyes intermediates required for nitrification, both need use a lot of concentrated sulfuric acid or fuming sulfuric acid. So it has a sulfuric acid plant, some dye works to meet the needs. 
Daily production for the production of synthetic detergent needed fuming sulfuric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. Plastic plasticizers (such as phthalic anhydride and phthalic acid esters), celluloid products, raw materials needed to nitrocellulose, sulfuric acid is required Preparation. cellophane, parchment manufacture, also need to use sulfuric acid. In addition, textile printing and dyeing industry, ceramic industry, hardware industry, soap industry, artificial flavor industry and other productive sectors, but also require the use of sulfuric acid. 
Preparation of sulfa drugs for the pharmaceutical industry in the sulfonation reaction, during the preparation of the powerful bactericide Furacilin nitrification are required sulfuric acid. In addition, the preparation of many antibiotics commonly used drugs such as aspirin, caffeine, Preparation of vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and vitamin C, some hormones, isoniazid, merbromin, saccharin, etc., all need to use sulfuric acid. 
Consolidating national defense 
Some developing countries sulfuric acid industry, once and military explosives production closely linked together, whether military explosive (propellant, explosive) or industrial explosives, mostly based on nitro or nitrate as its main ingredient. The main There are nitrocellulose, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroglycerin, picric acid, etc. Although these compounds are prepared to rely on nitric acid, but must use concentrated sulfuric acid or fuming sulfuric acid. 
Atomic energy industry and rocket technology 
Nuclear-reactor nuclear fuel production, produce reactor with titanium, aluminum and other alloy material, as well as for the manufacture of rockets, supersonic jet aircraft and satellites titanium alloy materials, and sulfuric acid are directly or indirectly from borax preparation of borane need large amounts of sulfuric acid. borane derivatives are the most important kind of high-energy fuel. borane and prepared uranium borohydride is used as a raw material used to separate uranium 235. Thus, sulfuric acid and the defense industry and cutting-edge science and technology have a close relationship. 
Agricultural Uses 
Soil improvement 
In agricultural production, increasing use of improved sulfuric acid at high pH calcareous soil over the past 20 years, urea - sulfuric acid fertilizer substantial increase in production and is widely applied to the soil in the western US states will inject sulfuric acid dairies. lakes, changing the water pH, to resolve a number of air and water quality issues captive livestock produced during the sulfuric acid was applied to agricultural soils and water, and its main role is to dissolve the calcium, magnesium carbonate and bicarbonate. These calcium, magnesium Then replace the exchangeable sodium salt, sodium followed by removal of water immersion. When carbonates and bicarbonates are decomposed more inert substances react with sulfuric acid, releasing phosphorus, iron and other plant nutrients. simply reduce soil The pH value can cause many changes Solubility elements, improving their effectiveness on plants. administering sulfuric acid in calcareous soils of high pH value, make the plant more robust, harvest increase. 
Fertilizer production 
For the production of ammonium sulfate fertilizers (commonly known as thiamine or fertile field flour) and superphosphate (commonly known as superphosphate or SSP) Both fertilizer production consumes large amounts of sulfuric acid. 
Many pesticides used in the production of pesticides have to sulfuric acid as raw materials such as copper sulfate, zinc sulfate can be used as fungicides plants, thallium sulfate can be used as a rodenticide, ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate can be used as herbicides. The most common killing pesticides, such as 1059 emulsion (45%) and 1605 emulsion (45%) of the production of sulfuric acid are required. 
Everyday household Uses 
Most acidic chemicals around the world through the canal supplies contain concentrated sulfuric acid. This type of pass on the canal supplies and basic supplies through the canal, as can dissolve blockages in the channel in the oil and food residues, etc. However, due to the concentrated sulfuric acid will highly exothermic reaction with water, it is suggested that before using channels keep dry, and slowly pour on chemical products, takes another wearing gloves.


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